Syria’s third city Homs was dubbed the “capital of the revolution,” after anti-government protests erupted in March 2011, but from 2012 it came under a two-year siege.
In the historic center of the city, completely in ruins, those remaining had virtually nothing left to eat and lived off grass and dry foods.
Once Syria’s commercial hub, Aleppo was devastated by more than four years of fighting, particularly along the front line that separated the rebel-held east from the government-held west.
Rebel districts were under near-continuous siege by the army. Heavy shelling by the army destroyed all established hospitals in the area.
In December 2016, the Syrian army declared it was in full control of Aleppo.
Daraya was one of the first towns in Syria to erupt in demonstrations against the government in 2011; it also became one of the first to be placed under a strict regime siege in 2012.
Thousands of civilians and fighters were bussed to the northwestern province of Idlib.